Administrative Issues Journal


Historically, the measurement of market orientation has proved to be difficult, due to the low external validity of the concept. Existing scales exhibit acceptable properties in measuring market orientation in business organizations, but are less accurate in the context of higher education institutions. This paper compares the performance of three scales – the MARKOR scale, the MKTOR scale, and the University MARKOR scale – in the context of academic organizations. Results indicate that the MARKOR and the MKTOR scales need modifications, in order to accurately measure the construct in the new context. Evidence suggests that the student-oriented University MARKOR scale outperforms existing scales in predicting university performance.