Document Type


Conference Title

American Pharmacists Association Annual Meeting

City and State

San Francisco, CA

Conference Date

March 24-27, 2017

Publication Date



  • In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education1 mandated measurement of stress in Student Pharmacists, specifically potential negative impacts on learning experiences and morale.
  • Votta and Benau (2013)2 provided supporting evidence that pharmacy students experience elevated, but not extreme, levels of perceived stress as compared to the general population.
  • Leffler et al. (2016)3 imposed a relaxation or non-relaxation technique on student pharmacists - they found two relaxation techniques (Mindfulness and Body Scan Meditation) and one control (Power Posing) were rated as easiest to conduct, most liked, and to cause subjects to feel more relaxed. In contrast, Mental Stimulation and 4x4 breathing were found to be the least useful to reduce stress.
  • Salivary measures were determined in these same student pharmacists, to evaluate whether they provide similar outcomes when evaluating the effects of relaxation and non-relaxation techniques on student pharmacists as compared to survey results.