This paper discusses the possible (and probable) methods by which the inhabitants of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age kept permanent records. A number of concepts are introduced and defined: substrate, medium, implement, glyphs and last, but not least, scribe! Suggestions regarding the possibility of the existence, late in the Third Age, of printing will be presented.
Simons, Lester E.
"Writing and Allied Technologies in Middle-earth,"
Mythlore: A Journal of J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and Mythopoeic Literature: Vol. 21
, Article 51.
Available at: https://dc.swosu.edu/mythlore/vol21/iss2/51