The disruption caused by a war of ideas is detailed in this paper on Pope Pius X and the Catholic Church’s response to modernism in the early years of the century, and shows this controversy’s clear influence on Tolkien’s thinking in his letters and fiction.
Bossert, A. R.
""Surely You Don't Disbelieve": Tolkien and Pius X: Anti-Modernism in Middle-earth,"
Mythlore: A Journal of J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and Mythopoeic Literature: Vol. 25
, Article 5.
Available at: https://dc.swosu.edu/mythlore/vol25/iss1/5
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