Taking Tolkien’s statement that hobbits lingered in “the North-West of the Old World” as its basis, this paper examines the fauna, organization of human culture, development of armor and so on in Middle-earth to place it in the “heroic age” of Europe and to identify Gondor with Rome. The author further identifies the function of the Elves and their protected kingdoms with the monasteries that preserved cultural memories through the Dark Ages. Consideration is given to the nonmedieval culture of the Shire, the fact that Aragorn does not map precisely onto any particular ruler of this period, and what these anomalies mean.
Allan, James D.
"The Decline and Fall of the Osgiliathian Empire,"
Mythcon Proceedings: Vol. 1:
4, Article 1.
Available at: https://dc.swosu.edu/mythpro/vol1/iss4/1