Marcella Juhren

Artists and Illustrations Included in This Record

Bg Callahan


Analysis of Middle-earth’s environmental equivalents to our world, by climate and dominant vegetation. Notes that Tolkien’s descriptions of the ecology of his Secondary World must be based on “years of close and thoughtful observation of nature”—particularly when describing transitions from one ecological niche to another. Concludes with an “ecological report” on Middle-earth. Covers geography, geology, and plant life in great detail.

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