Describes the Battle of the Somme and Tolkien’s participation in it. Pointing out the parallels between the battle-scarred landscapes of Northern Europe and Middle-earth, Livingston notes that while they are worth cataloging, it is Tolkien’s nuanced and sympathetic depiction of Frodo’s post-traumatic stress disorder that is the most compelling result of the author’s war experiences. Provides a good overview of Tolkien’s war experiences and his literary response to them.
"The Shell-shocked Hobbit: The First World War and Tolkien's Trauma of the Ring,"
Mythlore: A Journal of J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and Mythopoeic Literature: Vol. 25
, Article 6.
Available at: https://dc.swosu.edu/mythlore/vol25/iss1/6