Describes the Battle of the Somme and Tolkien’s participation in it. Pointing out the parallels between the battle-scarred landscapes of Northern Europe and Middle-earth, Livingston notes that while they are worth cataloging, it is Tolkien’s nuanced and sympathetic depiction of Frodo’s post-traumatic stress disorder that is the most compelling result of the author’s war experiences. Provides a good overview of Tolkien’s war experiences and his literary response to them.

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