It is commonly argued that the Inklings had no influence on Tolkien. This paper will show that they had a profound influence, so much so, that Lewis and Williams should be considered co-architects of Middle-earth.
Pavlac, Diana Lynne
"More than a Bandersnatch: Tolkien as a Collaborative Writer,"
Mythlore: A Journal of J.R.R. Tolkien, C.S. Lewis, Charles Williams, and Mythopoeic Literature: Vol. 21
, Article 56.
Available at: https://dc.swosu.edu/mythlore/vol21/iss2/56